|Hanukkah: Basic Concepts And Laws
by Chaim Coffman
What is Hanukkah?
The Talmud tells us that beginning with the 25th of Kislev, eight
days of Hanukkah are observed, during which no eulogies are delivered,
nor is fasting permitted. For when the Greeks entered the Sanctuary,
they defiled all the oils, and when the Hasmoneans (the Maccabees)
defeated them, they searched and found only one remaining jar of oil
with the seal of the Kohen Gadol (the High Priest). Although it contained
only enough oil to burn for one day, a miracle occurred, and the oil
burned eight days. A year later the Rabbis designated these days as
Yomim Tovim (Holidays) on which praise and thanksgiving were to be
said. (Tractate Shabbat 21)
The Greek's Harsh Decrees:
During the Second Temple period, the Greek kings outlawed the Jewish
religion, forbade them to engage in the study of Torah and the practice
of mitzvot, and ravaged and defiled all that had been ritually pure.
The Hasmoneans were finally able to subdue the enemy, whereby they
designated a king to rule over Israel which lasted for more than 200
years. The Sages of that generation therefore decreed, that the eight
days beginning with the 25th of Kislev should be days of rejoicing;
that Hallel (praise) be recited and that lights be lit in the entrance
to their homes each of the eight nights, in order to publicize the
miracle. These days were called Hanukkah, that is to say Chanu Kaf-Hay
(they rested on the 25th), for on the 25th, they rested from their
enemies. The above expression of the Talmud: "They made it a Yom Tov
for praise and thanksgiving" refers to the literal recitation of Hallel
(praise) and therefore, the complete Hallel is said during schararit
(morning prayers) all eight days of Hanukkah. The term "thanksgiving"
refers to al hanisim, which is included in each shmoneh esreh (silent
meditation, amidah) during these days as well, as well as in birkat
hamazon (grace after meals).
What may one use to light the Hanukkah candles?
The preferred way to perform the mitzvah is to light the Hanukkah
menorah with pure olive oil and cotton wicks, since their light is
pure and it causes us to remember the light of the Menorah which was
lit with olive oil. All other oils and wicks are permissible if their
light is pure and does not flicker. One may also use candles made
of wax. One must be careful and make sure the lights stay lit for
about a half an hour or as long as people coming home from the marketplace
would be able to see them. If one is using wax candles specifically,
it is a good idea to put them in the freezer before use since it lengthens
their burning time. The menorah itself should be pretty and can be
made of metal or glass. An earthenware holder is permissible but may
only be used once while it is still new. After one usage it becomes
unclean and may not be used for the next night. A wick which was used
one night may be used on succeeding nights as well. The same is true
of the remaining oil or of the remainder of wax candles. If one is
lighting with oil, one way to save on the mess and expense of using
many cotton wicks is to pull the part of the wick that is black up
from the holder and continue to use the rest of the wick and continue
this for many succeeding nights until the wick becomes very small.
One must also be careful with the menorah that one chooses. There
are many menorah's on the market that although aesthetically beautiful,
are not permitted to be used. For example, the eight candles of the
menorah must be in a straight line with the shamash a little bit above
them. Any menorah which is fancily shaped in a circle or square...
is not permitted to be used since the candles must be in a straight
line and none may be higher or lower than the others. There must also
be enough space between one candle and another so that the flames
of each are not intermingled.
How does one light the lights?
On the first night of Hanukkah, one light is lit and on each successive
night another light is added until the eighth night when all the lights
are lit. When one lights on the first night, one lights the one on
the extreme right. The following night he adds the one immediately
to the left and kindles it first. He then turns to the right and kindles
the light of the previous night. He follows the same procedure each
night always adding from right to left but always lighting from left
to right. The reason for this procedure is that the additional light
recalls the greatness and growth of the miracle.
On the first night of Hanukkah, three blessings are recited before
the lights are kindled:(1) "Baruch ata Hashem, Elokenu melech ha'olam,
asher kidshanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu l'hadlik ner shel Hanukkah."
(Blessed are You, L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe, Who has sanctified
us with His commandments and has commanded us to light the Hanukkah
lights.) (2) "Baruch ata Hashem, Elokenu melech ha'olam, she'asah
nisim la'avotenu, bayamim hahem bazeman hazeh." (Blessed are You,
L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe, Who has doen miracles for our
fathers in days gone by, at this time.) (3) "Baruch ata Hashem, Elokenu
melech ha'olam, shehecheyanu, vekiyemanu vehigi'anu lazeman hazeh."
(Blessed are You, L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe, Who has given
us life, and has sustained us, and has brought us to this time.) After
one makes these three blessings, he kindles the light. On the remaining
nights, one only recites the first two blessings and does not say
"shecheyanu." If one was prevented from lighting the candles on the
first night or forgot to say shecheyanu, he may say it the next time
he kindles the lights.
There is also a custom of using an extra candle, the shamash to light
the other candles. The shamash may only be used for lighting the other
candles and one may derive benefit from its light. The Hanukkah lights
themselves, however, may not be used for any other purpose while they
are burning for the purpose of the mitzvah. One should preferably
have other lights on in the house in order that one does not run into
After the first light is kindled, "hanerot halalu" is said and the
rest of the lights can now be lit. After the lights have been kindled,
Hanukkah songs are sung and foods containing oil, such as jelly donuts
are eaten. Every custom according to the place in which one lives!